There are 4 blood types present in the human body: A, B, O, and AB. Depending on the RH factor, blood types can be Rh+ or Rh-, resulting in eight common blood types.
The two important blood group systems are:
- ABO Blood group system
- Rh system
You must be wondering why we are going on and on about blood types. Well, this article will tell you how to find blood type in the UK.
1. How to Find Out Blood Type in the UK
To find blood type in the UK, a blood sample has to be taken, and a blood test is done.
People can find blood groups in the UK by donating blood, as normal blood group tests are unavailable.
A person’s blood group can be checked when a person’s blood is donated through NHS Blood and Transplant.
Also, you need to bring your blood donor card, which will be recorded on the donor’s official donor card.
NHS performs blood typing when someone donates blood; the blood donors can know their blood type after a week.
2. Blood Typing Procedure
A clean glass slide is taken, and three circles are drawn. Now, anti-A serum is added to the first circle, anti-B serum to the second, and anti-D serum to the third circle from the Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB) kit with the help of a dropper.
The slide is preserved in a secure location, and to find out the blood type, the patient’s finger is wiped with ethanol and rubbed gently.
With a pricking needle, a finger needle is pricked, and a blood sample is collected. The foremost(first) drop of blood is needed to be wiped off.
Blood must be dropped on the three circles made previously in the slide.
Pressure is applied to stop blood from oozing out. Blood samples are mixed with a toothpick, and agglutination (blood cells sticking together) is observed.
3. Types of Blood Groups
There are 4 main blood group types: A, B, AB, and O. Each of these blood types can be either Rh-positive or Rh-negative, which gives a total of 8 possible blood types:
- A-positive (A+)
- A-negative (A-)
- B-positive (B+)
- B-negative (B-)
- AB-positive (AB+)
- AB-negative (AB-)
- O-positive (O+)
- O-negative (O-)
To find out blood type in the UK, The ABO serum test is performed. It is a blood test that determines a person’s blood type based on the presence or absence of certain antigens on the surface of their red blood cells.
3.1. Blood Test Results
To find out blood type in the UK, these are the following observations seen after a blood test:
- The blood group is A+ if there is agglutination in Anti-A and Anti-D.
- The blood group is A- if there is agglutination in only Anti-A.
- The blood group is B+ if there is agglutination in Anti-B and Anti-D
- The blood group is B- if there is agglutination in Anti-B only.
- The blood group is O+ if there is agglutination in Anti-D only.
- The blood group is O- if there is no agglutination.
- The blood group is AB+ if there is agglutination in Anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-D.
- The blood group is AB- if there is agglutination in Anti-A and Anti-B.
4. Inheritance of Blood Group Type
Blood group type depends on the kind of genes inherited from the parents by the individual. Individuals inherit their blood type from their birth parents.
A parent with type A blood can either deliver the A antigen or no antigen of the red blood cells. When the other parent holds type B blood, they can pass on the B antigen or no antigen.
Depending on the variety, their offspring could have A, B, AB, or O blood type. An individual with blood group AB has received both antigens A and B.
If both parents have O blood, the offspring can solely carry the O blood type.
An individual can inherit RhD antigen either from the mum or the dad. This results in a positive blood group. But if no antigen is inherited, it results in a negative blood group.
5. Rhesus D (RHD) System of Four Blood Groups
RhD is a protein compound in the shell of red blood cells, and rhesus D (RhD), an antigen on red blood cells, determines whether the blood group is positive or negative.
The four blood groups can be RhD-positive or Rh-negative blood.
- A positive blood type: 30% of people have this blood type. Individuals with A+ blood type can donate to A+ and AB+.
- A negative blood type: 8% of people have this blood type. A- blood type people can donate to A+, A-, AB+, and AB-.
- B-positive blood type: 8% of people have this blood type. People with a B+ blood type can donate to B+ and AB+.
- B negative blood type: 2% of people have this blood type. B- blood type people can donate to B+, B-, AB+, and AB-.
- O-positive blood type: 35% of people have this blood group. A person with Rh-positive blood type can receive blood from 0+ people. Thus, individuals with O+ blood type can donate to A+, B+, AB+, and O+.
- O negative blood type: 13% of people have this blood type. O- blood type individuals can donate to A+, A-, B+, B-, O+, O-, AB+ and AB-. Therefore, individuals with O- blood type are called universal donors.
- AB-positive blood type: 2% of people have this blood type. AB+ blood type people can donate to AB+.
- AB negative blood type: 1% of people have this blood type. AB- blood type people can donate blood to AB+ and AB-.
6. ABO Blood Group System
This system is based on ABO blood group antigens:
- Type A blood group has antigen A on the red blood cells and antibody anti-B on the plasma cells.
- Type B blood group: The classification B blood group has antigen B on the red blood cells and anti-A on the plasma cells.
- Type O blood group: The type blood group has no antigen on the red blood cells and antibodies anti-A and anti-B on the plasma cells. Type O blood is the most expected blood group in the UK. Nearly half (48%) of UK residents have an O blood type.
- Type AB blood group: The type AB blood group has blood group antigens A and B on the red blood cells and no antibodies on the plasma cells.
Obtaining blood from the false ABO group can be fatal. For example, if someone with blood group B donated blood to blood group A, their anti-B antibodies will attack the group B red blood cells of blood group B.
Therefore, a person with blood group B should never donate blood to one with blood group A and vice versa. Blood group O does not have any antibodies so that it can give blood to any blood type.
7. Reasons to Find Out Your Blood Group
7.1. Blood Transfusions
Healthcare professionals need to know the blood groups before blood transfusions because only blood groups compatible with the patient’s blood can be used for blood transfusions.
If the patient receives the wrong blood group during blood transfusion, then it can result in death.
The reason for this is that body makes antibodies against the antigen that is not present in the ABO Blood group of the person.
So when the patient receives a different blood type, the blood will have antigens foreign to the body, and the patient’s body will reject the blood transfusion.
The body will make antibodies against blood, and blood cells will break, releasing harmful substances into the bloodstream. This results in a damaged kidney, and blood transfusion needs to be stopped.
The o-negative blood group does not normally cause adverse reactions during transfusions because it contains neither antigen nor RhD factor.
7.2. Organ Transplant
During an organ transplant, the blood group needs to be checked. Blood groups are also tested before the operation, as patients can need blood during the operation.
Someone who wants to donate blood in a blood donation camp should know their blood group.
It is important to perform a blood test during pregnancy and determine whether the pregnant woman is Rh+ or Rh-.
Because if the woman is Rh- and the fetus is Rh+, the blood of the fetus can go into the bloodstream of the mother. The mother’s body can recognize this Rh+ blood as foreign and can make anti-Rh+ antibodies.
These antibodies can cross the placenta of the mother and reach the fetus, resulting in attacking fetal blood cells, which can cause a serious type of anemia in the fetus where RBCs of the fetus are destroyed at a faster rate than the body’s capacity to replace them.
In conclusion, knowing your blood type is crucial to maintaining good health and creating informed conclusions about medical treatment.
While it is possible to determine your blood type through laboratory examinations, several symptoms can provide indications regarding your blood type.
Further, comprehending your blood type can provide a useful understanding of your overall health and well-being and assist you in making informed decisions about your diet and lifestyle preferences.
Eventually, finding your blood type is a straightforward but essential step in sustaining optimal health and wellness.